Factors Effecting Photovoltaic System Performance

solar-on-pole-mountA variety of factors influence the performance of photovoltaic system production.   System owners want to get the most for their money when they install solar panels on their home or business.

Location, location, location

One of the most important factors in system performance is the location of the solar array.  Location has three important components:

  1. Array azimuth (orientation with respect to true south)
  2. Array tilt (orientation with respect to horizontal) and
  3. Shading.

Array Orientation
In southwest Ohio we want the solar array to face south.  The sun rises in the east and sets in the west and peaks in the sky at solar noon each day.  While it is possible to mount modules facing east, west or even north the performance penalty increases the further away from true south the array faces.   For rooftop mounting on pitched roofs the best approach is to mount the modules parallel to the roof.  This provides the best aesthetics, though it does compromise performance to the extent that the roof does not face true south.    For flat roof applications there is opportunity to orient the modules irrespective of building orientation, and a variety of commercial mounting systems make this an easy approach.  So how much does array orientation effect system performance? To view the graph comparing system performance vs. array orientation click on the following link.

Figure 1- System Performance vs. Array Orientation

The chart shows that if the array faces south + 30 degrees it will still produce 97-98% of the optimal system output.  In Figure 1, 90 degrees represents an east facing array and 270 degrees represents a west facing array.  As you can see from the chart these extremes reduce the array performance by almost 20%.  So south facing arrays work best but if that does not match your roof line there are other options with predictable outcomes.

Array Tilt
A photovoltaic module works best when the sun strikes it at a 90 degree angle.  Most residential and small commercial solar arrays are installed with a fixed tilt (more on tracking arrays later).  Since the angle of the sun (as measured from the horizon) changes throughout the year, what is the best angle to mount the modules to maximize system performance?  Assuming we have an array which faces true south the following chart provides the answer (for southwest Ohio).  To see the graph thaat compares tilt and system performance, click on the following link.

Figure 2 – System Performance vs. Array Tilt Angle

The chart shows that for our area, 30 degrees is the nominal tilt angle for a photovoltaic array.  If we mounted the array horizontal to the ground or flat we would still achieve 88% of the optimal production and if we mounted the array vertically facing south we would achieve only 58% of our optimal production.   Most pitched roofs range from 18 – 45 degrees and these will achieve 95+% of optimal system output.  Again for flat roofs the mounting systems allow us to select the angle of tilt for the modules.

Tracking Arrays
There are mechanical solar tracking systems available that attach to the panels and track the sun throughout the day to maximize the hours of sunlight.  In general these systems add mechanical complexity (read installation and maintenance cost) which in general outweigh the performance improvements.  Trackers are typically only being implemented for large utility scale projects.  SunRock recently installed a pole mounted system which orients the array to face south and has a hand crank that is turned to adjust the array tilt to follow the seasons.  This system improves system performance by approximately 5% annually with no expected increase in maintenance costs.

Shading
Photovoltaic modules are very sensitive to shading.  SunRock performs a shading analysis for each site during the project evaluation and bid preparation.  This allows us to provide an accurate estimate of the system’s expected performance.   Shading occurs from surrounding trees, buildings, chimneys, dormers, and other structures, so a careful evaluation of the site needs to be performed prior to estimating production data.

If you have a yard full of trees and a roof full of shade, then your rooftop may not be a good candidate for solar.  There are other options though.  Solar panels can be installed on ground mounts, top of pole mounts, carport structures, etc.  For some possibilities check out our project photos.

There are also new micro-inverter and DC optimizers which can help mitigate shading issues at the site. These are deployed based upon specific shading issues at the site.

PV Systems Increase your Home’s Value

solar-panel-on-farmBerkeley National Laboratory just released a report entitled “An Analysis of the Effects of Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Home Sale Prices in California.”    The study was funded by the US Department of Energy.  The main focus of the study was to determine whether homes with installed PV systems sold for more money than comparable homes without PV.  The authors studied 72,000 homes in California of which 2000 had PV systems installed when they were sold.

The research found that homes with PV systems in California have sold for a premium compared to homes without PV.  When the sale prices were compared to the size of the PV systems installed, the average home sale price was $5.5/Watt with a range of $3.9 to $6.4/Watt.  This is higher than the homeowner’s original investment on the installation which averaged $5/Watt from 2001 to 2009 after all the state and federal incentives.

When the authors studied the relationship between new and existing homes sales prices they found an interesting result.  The new homes showed a premium of $2.3 to $2.6/Watt while the average premium for existing homes was $6/Watt.  The authors blamed this disparity on the fact that the homebuilders install photovoltaic systems on their new homes as a standard, and possibly accept a lower premium to sell the houses faster.

The last part of the study compared energy cost savings of the homeowners to the sales price of the homes.  When the results were expressed as a ratio of the sales price to the annual electricity cost savings associated with PV the average was around 20:1.  This means that for every $1000 saved in energy, the houseswith PV systems sold for $20,000 more than a house without a PV system.  This was the average for existing and new homes.  The averages for both ranged from 7:1 to 31:1.

The authors of the study showed that, in California, having a PV system installed on your house will increase your home’s sale price.

There is a 2-page summary located here:

http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/emp/reports/lbnl-4476e-rs.pdf.

Here is a link to the full report:

http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/lbnl-4476e.pdf